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Of Kings, Pawns and Horse-Trading: Barriers to Transportation Solutions in the Philippines


BY REGGIE B. RAMOS World War II leveled Manila. The war destroyed infrastructure and seriously damaged critical parts of Southeast Asia’s first railway system. In response to the devastation and operators’ failure to address transportation demands, army-surplus trucks were repurposed into “Jeepneys” intended to accommodate 16–24 passengers. Temporary certificates to operate were extended to underfinanced […]

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